New Zealand's dairy goat industry is starting research aimed at generating and amassing scientific data on the benefits of consuming goat milk infant formula produced by sustainable farm systems.
They don’t just have to be kept behind fences, they sometimes have to be individually restrained for various procedures, the flock has to be yarded from time to time and the goats must have secure housing and shelter from the elements. All this can be difficult, but fortunately dairy goats generally adapt well.
Sheep facilities are generally suitable for them, although adaptations are beneficial and effective shelter is imperative. Here we discuss physical restraint, shelter, housing, mustering, fences and yards, and mixing goats.
Restraint of individuals is best by an arm round the chest and an arm round the back of the goat. If the goat can be coaxed against the wall of the yard with its rump in a corner, a hand under the chin is often enough to provide good restraint. The goat’s head is pushed up if the goat moves forward and this prevents it barging forward.
Goats must never be physically hit or hurt in any way during handling, dogs shouldn’t be used unless the dogs are quiet and the goats accustomed to them, and electric prodders must never be used. Goats are sociable animals and they should not be isolated unnecessarily.
Good shelter is very important for goats, especially dairy goats. They dislike being cold or wet and are very susceptible to hypothermia, especially if they are thin or very old or very young.
Unlike meat goats, dairy goats don’t have a lot of muscle and fat under their skin to help keep them warm, and unlike fibre goats they don’t grow an insulating layer of fibre to protect them from cold weather. They must have enough shelter to keep them comfortable in cold wet windy weather.
In summer, they must have enough shade to prevent sunburn and heat stress on hot days.
The best form of shelter is a shed that is wind and water proof and well drained, with a dry base and bedding such as straw so that the goats can rest comfortably. The shed must be cleaned out regularly; bedding must not become wet and dirty. Sprinkling the floor with lime after cleaning can help keep it smelling fresh and prevent flies breeding in the litter.
Wooden slats can make a suitable floor if the slats are close enough to prevent toes becoming trapped but far enough apart to allow free drainage.
Hay racks can be made from a wooden frame with vertical wooden slats fixed firmly to the wall within easy reach. However, if the gaps are too narrow, heads and feet can become trapped. Common sense design is important.
In the paddocks, natural shelter like banks and windbreaks that provide effective shelter at stock level can help protect goats against showers and breezes but artificial shelter such as huts, sheds or a barn are still necessary in bad weather.
Unweaned kids that are being hand reared should be housed in a well-ventilated building that is wind- and waterproof with no draughts. The house will be warm enough for the kids if you can sit there comfortably in your shirtsleeves.
Dry bedding is important, and the house should be cleaned out regularly to keep it comfortable and hygienic. Ventilation must be good. If ammonia builds up to a level at which it irritates your eyes and nose, the goats will be suffering too.
Individual covers can be useful for kids and adult goats that are weak. However goats with covers are very likely to be bullied by other goats, kids wearing covers can be abandoned by their mothers, and loose covers can easily become tangled. If covers are used, very good supervision is needed.
Herding goats can be a bit like herding cats, and it is necessary to be patient, and to move them quietly and slowly. A food incentive in the yards can be a help. It’s best not to use dogs unless the goats are accustomed to them and the dogs stay back and are quiet.
Fences and yards
Dairy goats are generally much easier to keep in than feral goats, but goats of all types need good fencing to contain them. Because they are so intelligent, they can find their way out of many enclosed spaces unless the enclosure is made goat-proof. Some goats are good at jumping and will soar over the average stock fence. It requires ingenuity to keep them in if they are determined to get out. The best solution is to provide them with compatible companions and sufficient feed, water and shelter for them to prefer to stay in. Wooden neck frames and dragging ropes can cause more problems than they solve.
Electric fences and electric outriggers can be very effective, but they must be well-positioned and maintained and well supervised. They shouldn’t be used near very young kids, because they are not well-enough coordinated to avoid shocks and can die a horrible death if they become entangled.
When goats are yarded and pressured they are more likely to bully their flock-mates, and if bullying occurs it takes good supervision to prevent injuries. The time in the yards should be minimised and any bullies removed.
Yards can be dangerous if there are protrusions that can cause injuries or gaps where feet or heads can become wedged. Try to remove potential hazards. For example, block the space above hinges on gates. Always watch yarded goats carefully to prevent accidents.
• Dr Marjorie Orr is a lifestyle farmer and retired vet. This article was reproduced with permission from lifestyleblock.co.nz